The bulk elemental composition of the Earth and Sun with uncertainties: what can this comparison tell us about the composition of rocky exoplanets?

We have performed the most detailed and up-to-date comparison of the bulk elemental composition of the Earth and Sun by comparing terrestrial rocks with meteorite and solar photospheric compositions.  This comparison yields a wealth of information about the way the Earth formed (Wang, Lineweaver & Ireland 2017, Wang, Lineweaver & Ireland 2019). We present the best fit linear volatility trend as a function of condensation temperatures that can be used as a point of reference to understand the relationships between rocky planet and host star compositions. The material that formed the Earth did not experience temperatures above 1391 ± 15 K. 

The Sun has 10 times more of the element mercury than previously thought. We also derive the fractional distribution of carbon and oxygen between volatile and refractory components ( f_vol, f_ref ). For carbon we find (0.91