Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) represent large volume (>0.1 Mkm3; frequently above >1 Mkm3), mainly mafic (-ultramafic) magmatic events of intraplate affinity that occur in both continental and oceanic settings and are typically of short duration (<1 Myr) or consist of multiple short pulses over a maximum of a few 10s of Myr. Individual LIPs comprise volcanic packages (flood basalts), and a plumbing system of dyke swarms, sill complexes, layered intrusions, and crustal underplate, although erosion and deformation over time means that an individual LIP may incompletely preserve some of these components. LIP events occur at a variable rate that averages approximately every 20-30 Myr (but with provisional peaks associated with supercontinent breakups) back to at least 2.5 Ga, and extends more sparsely into the Archean, due to poorer preservation. LIPs (and associated silicic magmatism, carbonatites and kimberlites) are linked with continental breakup, regional domal uplift, global climate change including extinction events, and represent significant reservoirs of energy and metals that can either drive or contribute to a variety of metallogenic systems, and also affect hydrocarbon and aquifer systems. The current state-of-research in all these areas is addressed, with particular focus on the exciting new frontiers.