Mineral surfaces play a vital role in a number of geological, environmental and technological areas including ore formation, weathering of minerals, minerals processing, biomineralization, corrosion and catalysis. Understanding the physical and chemical properties of mineral surfaces, and their interactions with molecules, aqueous environments and microbes is crucial to mining, the environment and nanotechnology. The study of mineral surfaces using advanced spectroscopic techniques is challenging due to the non-perfect nature of minerals surfaces. Over the past 30 years surface analysis techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) have been used to elucidate the surface properties of minerals and their use is now widely accepted by industry. Their successful application to the study of mineral surfaces has driven interest for further development of advanced in and ex situ nanospectroscopic techniques. Synchrotron based techniques including Photoemission electron Microscopy (PEEM) and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) have recently been adapted for the study of heterogeneous surfaces, the distribution of surface chemical products, the selective attachment of microbes to minerals surfaces and novel in situ spectroscopic analysis.